ALWD Citation Manual

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ALWD Citation Manual is a Professional System of Citation. It is in its Fourth Edition and upholds a system of citation for all forms of legal writing. It is presented in an easy-to-use format. It has been edited by Darby Dickerson who is a leading authority on American legal citation. Its has an accessible and attractive layout, two-color design, and "Fast Formats” charts which visually flag key points. Sidebars provide pertinent information to steer you away from common errors. Diagrams and examples illustrate citation style at a glance.<ref></ref>

It primarily competes with the Bluebook style, a system developed by law reviews at several elite law schools, led by Harvard. Citations in the two formats are roughly similar. However, ALWD differs from Bluebook in one key respect.

Under the Bluebook system, the type styles used in citations found in academic legal articles (always footnoted) are very different from those used in citations within court documents (always cited inline). While the ALWD system follows the standard convention of footnotes within academic articles and inline citations in court documents, it rejects Bluebook's insistence on using different type styles in the two classes of documents. The ALWD type style is identical to that used in the Bluebook system for citations within court documents.<ref></ref>


Few features of the fourth edition of the ALWD Citation Manual:

  • Snapshots[1] of research sources annotated with the elements in each citation and a sample citation
  • New rules addressing citation of live performances (e.g., plays, concerts, operas) and new technology (e.g., Twitter, e-readers, YouTube video)
  • An expanded list of law reviews in Appendix 5
  • Updated examples[2] throughout
  • Self-stick tabs for flagging frequently referenced pages<ref></ref>



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